Natural Science of The Sun

In ancient times when human beings lived in a golden age, their science was based on the observations and relationships found in the nature around them. They made amazingly accurate calculations of the movements of all visible objects in the heavens that they called “the wandering stars”.

The one that was most important above all others was the Sun. It was studied with great attention to detail. All relationships and subtitles were meticulously recorded and studied. They created many volumes of information and art that spanned hundreds or even thousands of years; all destroyed, stolen or hidden now.

So what did they know about the Sun and its planets? The ancient people’s understanding of how the solar system worked goes well beyond planets orbiting a star. They knew things about the stars that are very profound and we are just starting to make discoveries that the ancient people of Earth already knew.

The first observation we have to make is that, from our point of view standing anywhere on Earth, the Sun and planets are moving through the sky from east to west. They are first seen appearing on the eastern horizon and are observed to move across the sky and set in the west traveling below the horizon in a circular motion. If we observe them for a long enough period we would notice that they are spinning around a particular point in the sky. This point we would then use as a reference for our north/south direction (depending on which hemisphere you are on). This is a simple way to determine how the sphere is moving as it spins on its axis.

The ancients may have had a different way of doing this using the Sun as a reference. One powerful tool they had in their possession was the humble circle. The keys to the universe can be found in the circle which can unlock many doors of understanding. So why don’t we start by drawing a circle and begin looking for these secrets.

The Circle

When we look out toward the horizon we understand that it appears more or less flat. I understandable that there are mountains and hills but generally the land is flat and even more so on the ocean. We would also notice that the observable area that we can watch is only half a sphere above the ground. The other half is unobservable below the horizon. This being the case we could draw a horizontal line through the circle to represent the horizon from east to west.

Day and Night

An obvious phenomenon that happens is that when the Sun is above the horizon, it is bright and the Earth is lit up for us to be able to see without walking into things. The Sun rises in the east and travels across the sky for a definite period of time before reaching the western horizon and setting.


Ancient Egyptians referred to the Sun as Horus during the time between 6:00 AM and 12:00 noon. This was the time when Horus is reborn out of the waters of creation (the ocean) on the horizon (Horus has risen or Horus’s zone) and grows in strength as he climbs the mountain toward the apex. Once Horus reaches the apex at 12:00 noon, he is transformed into Ra because the Sun literally changes in nature and becomes more powerful. You can feel the heat increase as Ra moves across the sky and becomes his strongest between 2:00 PM and 4:00 PM. When Ra meets the western horizon at 6:00 PM he becomes Set the setting Sun. This is the point when Set journeys toward the underworld and the very bottom depths. This is when it is 12:00 midnight and the Sun is at the bottom of the underworld. Set changes into Osiris god of the underworld and rules between 12:00 midnight and 6:00 PM, before being resurrected as Horus. The Egyptians say that Horus and Set continue to do battle to this day. It’s all about the science of the Sun.


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